This OE Watch contains 26 foreign article reviews spanning over 30 different regions and countries covering Operational Environment topics from the foreign perspective for the US Army leader, development, training and education community, as well as others in governmental, analytic, and academic communities.

This issue can be downloaded at FMSO’s website: https://community.apan.org/wg/tradoc-g2/fmso/

Its Table of Contents is here:

CHINA
3 China Engaging in Cognitive Warfare Campaign to Gain Regional Support
4 Chinese PLA Showing Signs of Possible Escalation in Sino-Indian Border Dispute
5 China’s Aid to Indonesian Submarine Retrieval Improves Trust
6 India Competing with Chinese and Pakistani Security Cooperation in Central Asia

RUSSIA
8 Rare Glimpse into Russian Armed Forces’ View of Multi-Domain Operations
10 Russia Stands Up Another Motorized Rifle Division in the Southern Military District
12 Russia’s Use of, and Defense Against, Loitering Munitions
14 Russian Generals Poised to Play Larger Political Role
15 Russian Analysts Reevaluating UAV Successes in Regional Conflict
17 Amphibious Landing Force Upgraded in Arctic
18 Russia Extending Coastal Defense Capability in Arctic
20 Turkish-Russian Relations Possibly Diverging

IRAN
22 Iran Wants to Be a Nanotech Leader
23 Iraq Poised to Become Increasingly Dependent on Iran for Electricity
24 Iran Unveils New Drone Defense Technology

TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME
25 Boko Haram Overrunning Nigerian Military Bases, Growing Weapons Cache
26 France Balancing Stability with Support for Democratic Change in Chad
27 Al Qaeda’s Transformation and Future: Still in Europe’s Thoughts and Nightmares
29 ISIS-Linked Militants in Mozambique Recruiting Youth with Fraudulent Business Loans
30 Most Lethal Police Operation in Rio de Janeiro’s History Comes with Significant Cost

GLOBAL OE
31 Colombia Rocked by Sustained, Countrywide Protests
32 El Salvador’s President Consolidating Power After Election
33 Turkey Builds on Regional Deployments, Successfully Tests Two New UAVs
35 Kenya Addressing Its Diverse Security Requirements by Bolstering Nascent Small Arms Production
36 Lebanese Army Faces Complex Threat Landscape Amidst Declining Morale
38 Temporary Reprieve in Somalia from Election Crisis and Violent Protests

For more information on this product, please contact:
Mr. Paul (Kent) Baumann (paul.k.baumann2.civ@mail.mil); Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS

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