Opposing Forces

What is OPFOR?

The 3 colors of TRADOC.

AR 350-2 designates TRADOC G2 as the responsible official for the Army’s Opposing Forces (OPFOR) Program. An OPFOR is used in lieu of a real-world enemy (identified hostile force) or threat (capability and intent to harm the U.S.) for training purposes.  The OPFOR represents a plausible, flexible, and free-thinking combination of regular & irregular, conventional & unconventional, and/or criminal forces with applicable doctrine, tactics, organization, and equipment to accurately portray potential enemy conditions.


Significance of the Logo

The “V” symbolizes both the real-world historic victories achieved by Army units currently serving as the professional OPFOR, as well as the 95%+ rate of rotational training victories at combat training centers. The wreath recognizes the combat experience gained through operational deployments by OPFOR units. The color Red is the default designation for an enemy or threat, whereas the colors “Black, OD Green, and Tan” reflect the primary colors of OPFOR uniforms (NTC = Tan, JMRC = Black, and JMRC/JPMRC – OD Green)  


The 3 colors of TRADOC.

Explore TRADOC G2's Landing Zones, providing accessible databases on the Acute Russian Threat, Chinese Pacing Threat, Iran, and North Korea. Delve into OPFOR units, tactics, and training resources, including the engaging OPFOR Threat Tactics Course and practical OPFOR Combined Arms Training Strategies (CATS). Stay updated with publications like the Operational Environment Master Plan and Red Diamond News Magazine for insights into evolving threat tactics. Dive deeper into OPFOR modernization efforts with point papers and slide decks for an enriched learning experience.​

Find information about opfor units

The Army has numerous Active Duty professional OPFOR units at Combat Training Centers (CTC) and other locations, such as the Ranger Training Brigade; there are also professional OPFOR Training Programs that convert MTOE units into formidable OPFOR sparring partners.

Tasked OPFOR

JPMRC – Schofield Barracks, HI

11th ACR Blackhorse

NTC - Fort Irwin, CA

1-509th PIR Geronimo

JRTC - Fort Johnson, LA

World Class OPFOR

MCTP – Fort Leavenworth, KS

1-4 IN Warrior

JMRC – Hohenfels, Germany

2nd BN, 1st IO Cyber Red Team

Fort Belvoir, VA

Powerful Tools & Courses:

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Threat Tactics Course

The TRADOC G2 OPFOR Threat Tactics Course is designed to equip participants with the skills to effectively portray a realistic and challenging adversary in training scenarios.

It covers OPFOR concepts and capabilities through functional tactics, utilizing various resources including computer-based tools, expert guidance, case studies, and hands-on exercises. This course ensures that students can provide an authentic opposition force during U.S. Army training events.

OPFOR Combined Arms Training Strategies (CATS)

OPFOR Combined Arms Training Strategies(CATS) provide tasks, conditions, and standards for OPFOR counter-tasks, as well as required OPFOR training aids and ammunition needed to adequately challenge the training unit’s mission essential tasks (MET)


Learn Publications:

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Operational Environment Master Plan

Operational Environment Master Plan (OEMP) provides goals and objectives to improve and modernize the OPFOR program at Combat Training Centers (CTC), Home-Station Training (HST), Center of Excellence (COE) and within Model and Simulations (M&S).

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Red Diamond News Magazine​

Red Diamond provides a routine publication of unclassified threat tactics and capabilities as applied to the OPFOR Program, as well as OPFOR tactics and articles related to training units’ lessons learned.

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OE Watch Magazine​

G2’s Foreign Military Studies Office (FMSO) publishes the Operational Environment (OE) Watch with translated selections and analysis from a diverse range of foreign articles and other media to provide military and security experts added dimension to their critical thinking about the OE.

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OPFOR Doctrine/Threat Tactics​

Unclassified training publication of Opposing Forces (OPFOR) doctrine within Army Techniques Publications (ATPs) and Training Circulars (TC) for Russian and China, as well as generic Hybrid Threats.

  • ATP 7-100.1 Russian Tactics
  • ATP 7-100.3 Chinese Tactics
  • TC 7-100.2 Hybrid Threat Tactics
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OPFOR Point Papers – Recommendations​

A collection of TRADOC G2 and TPO-OPFOR-S produced Point Papers and Information Papers pertaining to OPFOR Modernization efforts and/or the implication of such. CAC Required.

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TPO-OPFOR-S Modernization Slide-deck​

A series of Power Point Presentations and documents produced by the TRADOC Proponent Office for OPFOR training Systems (TPO-OPFOR-S). CAC Required.


The 3 colors of TRADOC.

Exploit the Decisive Action Training Environment (DATE) for training purposes, ensuring compliance with FM 7.0 guidelines. Explore various scenarios and OPFOR utilization with each in the Exercise Support Application (ESA). Discover the OPFOR Program outlined in AR 350-2 or access additional resources like TC 7-101 Exercise Design Guide and DATE-related videos to enhance application efforts.

Apply Publications:

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AR 350-2, OPFOR Program​

The U.S. Army Regulation that outlines duties and responsibilities for implementing the Operational Environment and Opposing Forces (OE/OPFOR) Program.

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TC 7-101 Exercise Design Guide​

Training Circular (TC) 7-101 is the Exercise Design Guide that describes the process for creating training exercises with Operational Environment (OE) and Opposing Forces (OPFOR) training conditions.

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DATE & OPFOR Related Videos​

A collection of TRADOC G2 produced videos that support the application of DATE or the OPFOR within training, as well as a host of other training videos and gaming productions useful for professional self-development.


The 3 colors of TRADOC.

Evaluate compliancy for Centers of Excellence (COE) and Schools, ensuring adherence to OPFOR Accreditation Standards. Assess compliancy for collective training to guarantee effective preparation against potential threats.

Assess compliancy for COE/Schools​


Operational environment and opposing force accreditation concept for institutional training and education. TRADOC G2 participates as an Army Enterprise Accreditation Standards supporting member of TRADOC Quality Assurance Office (QAO) accreditations for Army and TRADOC COEs and schools.

As the OE governance evaluator, the TRADOC G2 reviews the integration of OE and OPFOR equities and complexities within programs of instruction and classroom instruction and/or observes exercises. Using the results of these events, the TRADOC G2 evaluates the inclusion of doctrinal OE and OPFOR training in lesson plans and scenarios, reviews instructor certification programs, and validates demonstrated student competency in OE and OPFOR characteristics during student exercises. 

TRADOC G2 will present OE and OPFOR findings to the COE or school commandant as part of the overall QAO accreditation report, which is also forwarded to the TRADOC DCG and Chief of Staff. 

Assess compliancy for Collective Training

Accreditation concept for collective training. Collective training accreditations occur at the CTCs, USAR training divisions, JPMRC, and ARNG collective training program(s) and other training organizations or programs using an OE and OPFOR for training purposes. TRADOC G2 assembles an interdisciplinary accreditation team of subject matter experts on OE and OPFOR training, and leader development from throughout the Army and Joint community and may include OPFOR representatives from other activities.

The accreditation team visits the training site(s), makes observations, prepares a written report with observations, discussions, and recommendations for the observed commander, either accrediting or not accrediting the observed operational variable portrayal, as well as the extent to which the replication helped the training unit to achieve training objectives and desired training outcomes. TRADOC G2 will also use observations and input from training units as a feedback mechanism into the OE and OPFOR doctrinal, training, and training materiel development process. The use of OE and OPFOR standards within collective training venues is accredited to ensure:

(1) The OPFOR is adequately resourced to replicate the OE and other-directed training.  

(2) Leaders, Planners, Observer, Controller, Trainers, OPFOR & role players are trained and knowledgeable about the OE and its impact on military operations.  

(3) Training venues plan, implement, and resource replication of complex and interrelated Operational Variables for the type of exercise and in accordance with senior Army leader directives, exercise director's guidance & rotational training unit commander's training objectives.  

(4) The training venue replicates/executes complexities of the OE within Live, Virtual, Constructive domains for LSCO training exercises or other-directed training. 

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OPFOR Accreditation Standards​

Presents the standards with associated criteria used by TRADOC G2 to conduct accreditations of training and education programs

Accreditation Standards

The focus of the OE/OPFOR pillar is to validate the means that ensure accurate replication of the Operational Environment (OE), Maneuver readiness Exercises (MRE's), DATE-compliant exercises and employment of realistic, capable, contemporary, free-thinking OPFOR, using technology and asymmetric methods of operations. The purpose is to facilitate Army-wide training outcomes, rotational unit training objectives and the continual development of adaptive leaders.