This OE Watch contains 47 foreign article reviews spanning over 30 different regions and countries covering Operational Environment topics from the foreign perspective for the US Army leader, development, training and education community, as well as others in governmental, analytic, and academic communities.

This issue can be downloaded at FMSO’s website:

This particular issue can be downloaded directly at

Its Table of Contents is here:

3 The Future of Peacekeeping in the Collective Security Treaty Organization
5 Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations Joins Peacekeeping Force in Nagorno-Karabakh
8 Russian Armed Forces Conduct First ‘NCO of the Year’ Competition
10 Possible Reasoning for Russian Extraterritorial Naval Bases
13 Karabakh War Might Spur Russian Attack UAV Development
15 Airmobile Brigades Getting Helicopter Augmentation
18 Hovercraft continue to support Russian Naval Infantry
19 Terminator-2 Tank Support Combat Vehicles Vigorously Field Tested
20 Turkish Perspectives on the UAE-Greece Defense Agreement
22 Turkey Develops Mobile Early Warning Air Defense System: KALKA
24 Turkey Eyes Strategic Gateway to Central Asia and China

26 Taiwan Sees “Shift” in China’s Grey Zone Warfare
28 Pakistan Evaluates its Defense Industry
30 Philippines Rewards Soldiers’ Bravery in Sea Battle Against Abu Sayyaf
31 Competition Heats With Launch of Chinese 6G Test Platform
32 China: Improving Capability in Replenishment Operations Through Drones
33 A Chinese Perspective on Future Urban Unmanned Operations

35 Deployment of Russian Anti-Drone System to Syria and Implications for Turkey
37 A Deal Between Kurds, Russians, and the Syrian Regime in Ain Issa
39 Iran: Submarine-to-Surface Missile Launch System Entered Mass Production
40 Iran: Gilan Exports Up to Azerbaijan, Russia
41 Iran: Advancement in Radar is the Basis for Deterring against Threats
42 Prospects of a Growing Turkish Role in Yemen as Riyadh Agreement Fails to Take Root
44 Hezbollah Claims Full Readiness for War with Israel, as Lebanon Faces a Bleak and Uncertain Future
46 Syria Becoming Center of Illicit Drug Production and Export to Europe and Arabian Peninsula
48 Yemen’s Salafi Militias: Effective Ideological Forces with Destabilizing Potential
50 Mercenary Recruitment and PMC Growth in Syria
52 Potential for Increased Chinese Influence in Algeria Amidst Recognition of Moroccan Claims on the Western Sahara

54 Counterterrorism in Africa Requires New Approaches
55 Eritrea’s Possible Role in Ethiopia’s TPLF Conflict
56 Africa: Rising Debt Stifles Ability to Pay
57 Uganda’s Bloody Election
58 Chinese Investments Are Economically Transforming Africa
59 COVID-19 Diplomacy: China’s Medical Assistance to South Africa
60 Senegal Military Exercises Signal Counter-Terrorism Preparedness
61 DRC: SADC Agrees to Reconfigure UN Force Intervention Brigade
63 South African Officer Completes Pakistani ‘Commando’ Course
65 Algeria Against Mali’s Exchange of Jihadists for Prisoners
66 Boko Haram’s Aquatic Attacks in Lake Chad
67 Switzerland Adopts “Military Peace Promotion” in Africa

68 Venezuela and Iran Expand Military Ties
69 Latin America’s Cartels Embrace Social Media to Sell Drugs and Narco Culture
70 Four-Years of Colombia’s Power-Sharing Agreement
71 Colombian Military Doctrine Change
72 China’s Vaccine Diplomacy in Latin America
73 China and Argentina Advance Cooperation on Rail Infrastructure
74 Brazil Passes New Data Protection Law

For more information on this product, please contact: Mr. Paul (Kent) Baumann (, Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS

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